Images to accompany The Modern Cabinetmaker (online manual)

Please click on each image to see enlargements.

These 'Type 1' chips were produced by a wood-bodied try plane having a blade set
at a cutting angle of 42.5° and a long mouth.
Photo 1
imageSpiral shaving, 0.1 mm thick x 22 mm wide, of pine wood. The cap iron was set close.
Photo 2
imageSpiral shaving, 0.1 mm thick x 5 mm wide, of oak wood. Produced similarly to Photo 1.
Photo 3
image 2 mm thick x 4 mm wide shaving of oak wood. The cap iron was set well back. Voids associated with shear fractures may be seen on the edge of the chip.
Photo 4
image 2 mm x 20 mm wide shaving of oak wood, otherwise similar to Photo 3.
Photo 5
image2mm thick x 22mm wide shaving of pine wood, otherwise similar to Photo 3.
A selection of sharp-edged tools, marking-out tools, and others.
Photo 6
imageSmall hammer made of 13 mm (0.5 in) drill rod of weight about 40 gm (1.4 oz) fitted to a box wood handle.
Photo 7
imageSharp-edged tools. The chisel at the bottom of the picture is 42 mm wide, made from a high speed steel machine hacksaw blade ground to shape, as was the marking knife, to the right of the picture. The smallest chisel is 0.5 mm wide, made from a carbon steel bicycle spoke. The incannel gouge was made from piano wire, ground, hardened and tempered.
Photo 7a
imageThe 'coarse' dovetail scriber shown in the foreground is made from hardened and tempered high carbon steel 13 SWG (2.3 mm dia) piano wire with a conical honed point. The 'medium' dovetail scriber in the background is made from a 0.6 mm thick high speed steel hacksaw blade ground to shape with a honed oval cutting edge.
Photo 8
imageInstruments for marking out and measuring. Top row: a small adjustable sliding bevel and blades for sliding bevel stocks of larger size. Middle row: adjustable bevels made from steel and brass, a 135° bevel, a miniature 90° square, and two small straight edges. Underneath a marking knife made from high speed steel ground to shape and bound with rubber and a 150 mm ruler to indicate the scale of the objects.
Photo 9

image32 mm wide inlay cut-off chisel. It is easy to adjust the chisel to make a 90° angle between the ebony inlay string and its reflection when preparing to make a 45° cut.
Photo 10
imageInlay roller tool made from a radial ball bearing mounted on a spigot, welded onto a cranked bar so that the centre of the handle is in line with the centre of the bearing. The overall length of the tool is 375 mm. The tool is grasped with both hands so that the bearing can be steered along the inlay whilst pressing down hard.
Photo 11
imageIn order from the top: a shipwright's scraper made from a large hand file, a scraper made from a smaller file, two scrapers made from 25 mm wide Ni-chrome steel band-saw blade material. Two narrow cabinet scrapers made from high speed steel. To the left: a cabinet scraper made from mild steel edged with high speed steel. The hollow grinding of the backs of the high speed steel scrapers is visible. Under: a 150 mm steel rule to indicate the scale of the objects.
Photo 12
imageSaw-setting hammer and plates. The hammer and plates were made from alloy tool steel, hardened and tempered. The foremost plate is fitted with phenolic resin index blocks which are adjusted according to the pitch of the saw teeth. The plates are mounted on more massive blocks to absorb the shock of the hammer. The saw blade is supported horizontally on the plate and alternate teeth hammered over to conform to the bevel angle on the plate (preferably using one blow each).
Photo 13
imagePSA tape dispenser. The wooden frame, which holds two reels of tape, is mounted on a relatively massive metal block to give stability in use. The bottom of the block is covered with soft leather to avoid scratching polished surfaces. The tape is pressed onto a narrow 'land' in front of the cutter prior to cutting so that is remains in place ready for the next section to be lifted up. This ensures reliable one-handed operation. Each tape can be efficiently cut by pulling it against the spring steel cutter which has a sharp saw-tooth edge profile. The dispenser will accept reels of 19 or 25 mm width which are held in place with moveable steel lugs.
Examples of enduring designs which owe more to the materials and methods
of manufacture than to product concepts imagined by designers.
Photo 14
imageA besom broom. The handle is of hazel wood and the head is of birch twigs. This relatively inferior model has bindings of wire and string (instead of more traditional split withy) and the head is secured by a steel nail instead of a wooden dowel.
Photo 15
image The Sussex trug was developed in the early nineteenth century using traditional woodland craft techniques. The handle, rim and straps are of chestnut, the boards are of cricket bat willow. The components are secured with copper nails. This trug was made by John Carnell of Hastings, East-Sussex.
Methods and equipment
Photo 16
imageHoning a chisel: Stage 1 - side view - start of stroke. Note posture and grip on tool blade and handle.
Photo 17
imageAs Photo 16 but end of stroke.
Photo 18
imageAs Photo 16 but top view.
Photo 19
imageAs Photo 17 but top view.
Photo 20
imageHoning the back of a chisel: Stage 3 - top view.
Photo 21
imageSharpening station with all the equipment needed for cutter honing. The left hand bench stone is for cutter backs only, and the second from the left is for bevels only. The two cast iron laps to the right are for both cutter backs and bevels. The heights of the stones and laps is arranged so that when honing cutter backs the cutter handle or one's hand does not foul on anything to the right.
Photo 22
imageHoning a turning gouge using the RE honing post - side view. Blade end supported on post, and handle against body.
Photo 23
imageAs Photo 22 but blade now rotated without altering basic posture.
Photo 24
imageAs Photo 22 but top view.
Photo 25
imageAs Photo 23 but top view.
Shear strength testing apparatus.
Photo 26
imageThe steel shear tool is of heavy construction and is designed to set up an accurately aligned stress parallel to the 'glue line' of the test-piece. The load cell with its connecting wires can be seen in the upper central part of the image.
Photo 27
imageA beech wood test block after the destructive test. An assessment of the joint strength is made by correlating the proportion of glue failure vs. fibre failure with the stress required to induce failure. Some test pieces resist forces in excess of 3 tonnes before failing.